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Review

Class-3 Semaphorins and Their Receptors: Potent Multifunctional Modulators of Tumor Progression

The Technion Integrated Cancer Center, The Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 31096, Israel
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030556
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
Semaphorins are the products of a large gene family containing 28 genes of which 21 are found in vertebrates. Class-3 semaphorins constitute a subfamily of seven vertebrate semaphorins which differ from the other vertebrate semaphorins in that they are the only secreted semaphorins and are distinguished from other semaphorins by the presence of a basic domain at their C termini. Class-3 semaphorins were initially characterized as axon guidance factors, but have subsequently been found to regulate immune responses, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and a variety of additional physiological and developmental functions. Most class-3 semaphorins transduce their signals by binding to receptors belonging to the neuropilin family which subsequently associate with receptors of the plexin family to form functional class-3 semaphorin receptors. Recent evidence suggests that class-3 semaphorins also fulfill important regulatory roles in multiple forms of cancer. Several class-3 semaphorins function as endogenous inhibitors of tumor angiogenesis. Others were found to inhibit tumor metastasis by inhibition of tumor lymphangiogenesis, by direct effects on the behavior of tumor cells, or by modulation of immune responses. Notably, some semaphorins such as sema3C and sema3E have also been found to potentiate tumor progression using various mechanisms. This review focuses on the roles of the different class-3 semaphorins in tumor progression. View Full-Text
Keywords: semaphorins; angiogenesis; cancer; lymphangiogenesis; neuropilins; plexins semaphorins; angiogenesis; cancer; lymphangiogenesis; neuropilins; plexins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Toledano, S.; Nir-Zvi, I.; Engelman, R.; Kessler, O.; Neufeld, G. Class-3 Semaphorins and Their Receptors: Potent Multifunctional Modulators of Tumor Progression. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 556. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030556

AMA Style

Toledano S, Nir-Zvi I, Engelman R, Kessler O, Neufeld G. Class-3 Semaphorins and Their Receptors: Potent Multifunctional Modulators of Tumor Progression. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(3):556. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030556

Chicago/Turabian Style

Toledano, Shira, Inbal Nir-Zvi, Rotem Engelman, Ofra Kessler, and Gera Neufeld. 2019. "Class-3 Semaphorins and Their Receptors: Potent Multifunctional Modulators of Tumor Progression" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 3: 556. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030556

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