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The Puzzling Role of Neuron-Specific PMCA Isoforms in the Aging Process

1
Department of Molecular Neurochemistry, Medical University, 92-215 Lodz, Poland
2
Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(24), 6338; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20246338
Received: 21 November 2019 / Revised: 10 December 2019 / Accepted: 13 December 2019 / Published: 16 December 2019
The aging process is a physiological phenomenon associated with progressive changes in metabolism, genes expression, and cellular resistance to stress. In neurons, one of the hallmarks of senescence is a disturbance of calcium homeostasis that may have far-reaching detrimental consequences on neuronal physiology and function. Among several proteins involved in calcium handling, plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) is the most sensitive calcium detector controlling calcium homeostasis. PMCA exists in four main isoforms and PMCA2 and PMCA3 are highly expressed in the brain. The overall effects of impaired calcium extrusion due to age-dependent decline of PMCA function seem to accumulate with age, increasing the susceptibility to neurotoxic insults. To analyze the PMCA role in neuronal cells, we have developed stable transfected differentiated PC12 lines with down-regulated PMCA2 or PMCA3 isoforms to mimic age-related changes. The resting Ca2+ increased in both PMCA-deficient lines affecting the expression of several Ca2+-associated proteins, i.e., sarco/endoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), calmodulin, calcineurin, GAP43, CCR5, IP3Rs, and certain types of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs). Functional studies also demonstrated profound changes in intracellular pH regulation and mitochondrial metabolism. Moreover, modification of PMCAs membrane composition triggered some adaptive processes to counterbalance calcium overload, but the reduction of PMCA2 appeared to be more detrimental to the cells than PMCA3. View Full-Text
Keywords: plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase; isoforms; PC12 cells; bioenergetics; Ca2+ signaling; aging plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase; isoforms; PC12 cells; bioenergetics; Ca2+ signaling; aging
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Boczek, T.; Radzik, T.; Ferenc, B.; Zylinska, L. The Puzzling Role of Neuron-Specific PMCA Isoforms in the Aging Process. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 6338.

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