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Humanized Mice as an Effective Evaluation System for Peptide Vaccines and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

1
Department of Molecular Life Science, Division of Basic Medical Science, Tokai University School of Medicine; 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara-shi, Kanagawa 259-1193, Japan
2
Institute of Advanced Biosciences, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292, Japan
3
Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara-shi, Kanagawa 259-1193, Japan
4
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara-shi, Kanagawa 259-1193, Japan
5
Central Institute for Experimental Animals, 3-25-12 Tonomachi, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 210-0821, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(24), 6337; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20246337
Received: 5 November 2019 / Revised: 6 December 2019 / Accepted: 12 December 2019 / Published: 16 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptides for Health Benefits 2019)
Peptide vaccination was developed for the prevention and therapy of acute and chronic infectious diseases and cancer. However, vaccine development is challenging, because the patient immune system requires the appropriate human leukocyte antigen (HLA) recognition with the peptide. Moreover, antigens sometimes induce a low response, even if the peptide is presented by antigen-presenting cells and T cells recognize it. This is because the patient immunity is dampened or restricted by environmental factors. Even if the immune system responds appropriately, newly-developed immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), which are used to increase the immune response against cancer, make the immune environment more complex. The ICIs may activate T cells, although the ratio of responsive patients is not high. However, the vaccine may induce some immune adverse effects in the presence of ICIs. Therefore, a system is needed to predict such risks. Humanized mouse systems possessing human immune cells have been developed to examine human immunity in vivo. One of the systems which uses transplanted human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) may become a new diagnosis strategy. Various humanized mouse systems are being developed and will become good tools for the prediction of antibody response and immune adverse effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: peptide vaccine; immune checkpoint inhibitor; humanized mouse; cancer antigen; immune suppression peptide vaccine; immune checkpoint inhibitor; humanized mouse; cancer antigen; immune suppression
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Kametani, Y.; Ohno, Y.; Ohshima, S.; Tsuda, B.; Yasuda, A.; Seki, T.; Ito, R.; Tokuda, Y. Humanized Mice as an Effective Evaluation System for Peptide Vaccines and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 6337.

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