Petal senescence involves numerous programmed changes in biological and biochemical processes. Ubiquitination plays a critical role in protein degradation, a hallmark of organ senescence. Therefore, we investigated changes in the proteome and ubiquitome of senescing rose (Rosa hybrida
) petals to better understand their involvement in petal senescence. Of 3859 proteins quantified in senescing petals, 1198 were upregulated, and 726 were downregulated during senescence. We identified 2208 ubiquitinated sites, including 384 with increased ubiquitination in 298 proteins and 1035 with decreased ubiquitination in 674 proteins. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses revealed that proteins related to peptidases in proteolysis and autophagy pathways were enriched in the proteome, suggesting that protein degradation and autophagy play important roles in petal senescence. In addition, many transporter proteins accumulated in senescing petals, and several transport processes were enriched in the ubiquitome, indicating that transport of substances is associated with petal senescence and regulated by ubiquitination. Moreover, several components of the brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis and signaling pathways were significantly altered at the protein and ubiquitination levels, implying that BR plays an important role in petal senescence. Our data provide a comprehensive view of rose petal senescence at the posttranslational level.
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