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Open AccessArticle

Dual RNA Sequencing of Vitis vinifera during Lasiodiplodia theobromae Infection Unveils Host–Pathogen Interactions

Department of Biology, CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Campus Heymans, Ottergemsesteenweg 460, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium
Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, 9052 Ghent, Belgium
Center for Plant Systems Biology, VIB, 9052 Ghent, Belgium
Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028, South Africa
Faculty of Dental Medicine, Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Health (CIIS), Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Estrada da Circunvalação, 3504-505 Viseu, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 6083;
Received: 28 October 2019 / Revised: 28 November 2019 / Accepted: 29 November 2019 / Published: 3 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Pathogen Interaction)
Lasiodiplodia theobromae is one of the most aggressive agents of the grapevine trunk disease Botryosphaeria dieback. Through a dual RNA-sequencing approach, this study aimed to give a broader perspective on the infection strategy deployed by L. theobromae, while understanding grapevine response. Approximately 0.05% and 90% of the reads were mapped to the genomes of L. theobromae and Vitis vinifera, respectively. Over 2500 genes were significantly differentially expressed in infected plants after 10 dpi, many of which are involved in the inducible defense mechanisms of grapevines. Gene expression analysis showed changes in the fungal metabolism of phenolic compounds, carbohydrate metabolism, transmembrane transport, and toxin synthesis. These functions are related to the pathogenicity mechanisms involved in plant cell wall degradation and fungal defense against antimicrobial substances produced by the host. Genes encoding for the degradation of plant phenylpropanoid precursors were up-regulated, suggesting that the fungus could evade the host defense response using the phenylpropanoid pathway. The up-regulation of many distinct components of the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants supports this hypothesis. Moreover, genes related to phytoalexin biosynthesis, hormone metabolism, cell wall modification enzymes, and pathogenesis-related proteins seem to be involved in the host responses observed. This study provides additional insights into the molecular mechanisms of L. theobromae and V. vinifera interactions. View Full-Text
Keywords: dual RNA-Seq; grapevine; botryosphaeria dieback; plant defense; pathogenesis dual RNA-Seq; grapevine; botryosphaeria dieback; plant defense; pathogenesis
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Gonçalves, M.F.M.; Nunes, R.B.; Tilleman, L.; Van de Peer, Y.; Deforce, D.; Van Nieuwerburgh, F.; Esteves, A.C.; Alves, A. Dual RNA Sequencing of Vitis vinifera during Lasiodiplodia theobromae Infection Unveils Host–Pathogen Interactions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 6083.

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