The release of cytokines by neutrophils constitutes an essential process in the development of inflammation by recruiting and activating additional cells. Neutrophils are also able to secrete a complex of S100A8 and S100A9 proteins (S100A8/A9), which can amplify the general inflammatory state of the host and is involved in the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). S100A8/A9 have received renewed attention due to their susceptibility to several function-altering post-translational modifications. In that context, it has been recently demonstrated that only the phosphorylated form of S100A8/A9 (S100A8/A9-P) is able to induce the secretion of several cytokines in neutrophils. Here, we investigate the mechanism by which this post-translational modification of S100A8/A9 can regulate the extracellular activity of the protein complex and its impact on the inflammatory functions of neutrophils. We found that S100A8/A9-P are present in large amounts in the synovial fluids from RA patients, highlighting the importance of this form of S100A8/A9 complex in the inflammation process. Using miRNA-sequencing on S100A8/A9-P-stimulated differentiated HL-60 cells, we identified a dysregulation of miR-146a-5p and miR-155-5p expression through TRL4 signaling pathways. Our data reveal that overexpression of these miRNAs in neutrophil-like cells reduces S100A8/A9-P-mediated secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
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