Accompanied by increased life span, aging-associated diseases, such as metabolic diseases and cancers, have become serious health threats. Recent studies have documented that aging-associated diseases are caused by prolonged cellular stresses such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, mitochondrial stress, and oxidative stress. Thus, ameliorating cellular stresses could be an effective approach to treat aging-associated diseases and, more importantly, to prevent such diseases from happening. However, cellular stresses and their molecular responses within the cell are typically mediated by a variety of factors encompassing different signaling pathways. Therefore, a target-based drug discovery method currently being used widely (reverse pharmacology) may not be adequate to uncover novel drugs targeting cellular stresses and related diseases. The connectivity map (CMap) is an online pharmacogenomic database cataloging gene expression data from cultured cells treated individually with various chemicals, including a variety of phytochemicals. Moreover, by querying through CMap, researchers may screen registered chemicals in silico and obtain the likelihood of drugs showing a similar gene expression profile with desired and chemopreventive conditions. Thus, CMap is an effective genome-based tool to discover novel chemopreventive drugs.
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