Next Article in Journal
Beneficial Effects of Neurotensin in Murine Model of Hapten-Induced Asthma
Previous Article in Journal
Methotrexate an Old Drug with New Tricks
Previous Article in Special Issue
Perioperative Cardioprotection by Remote Ischemic Conditioning
Open AccessReview

Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Mechanisms of Damage/Protection and Novel Strategies for Cardiac Recovery/Regeneration

1
Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, 10124 Torino, Italy
2
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, 10124 Torino, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5024; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205024
Received: 26 August 2019 / Revised: 24 September 2019 / Accepted: 8 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies for Cardiac Protection and Regeneration)
Ischemic diseases in an aging population pose a heavy social encumbrance. Moreover, current therapeutic approaches, which aimed to prevent or minimize ischemia-induced damage, are associated with relevant costs for healthcare systems. Early reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) has undoubtedly improved patient’s outcomes; however, the prevention of long-term complications is still an unmet need. To face these hurdles and improve patient’s outcomes, novel pharmacological and interventional approaches, alone or in combination, reducing myocardium oxygen consumption or supplying blood flow via collateral vessels have been proposed. A number of clinical trials are ongoing to validate their efficacy on patient’s outcomes. Alternative options, including stem cell-based therapies, have been evaluated to improve cardiac regeneration and prevent scar formation. However, due to the lack of long-term engraftment, more recently, great attention has been devoted to their paracrine mediators, including exosomes (Exo) and microvesicles (MV). Indeed, Exo and MV are both currently considered to be one of the most promising therapeutic strategies in regenerative medicine. As a matter of fact, MV and Exo that are released from stem cells of different origin have been evaluated for their healing properties in ischemia reperfusion (I/R) settings. Therefore, this review will first summarize mechanisms of cardiac damage and protection after I/R damage to track the paths through which more appropriate interventional and/or molecular-based targeted therapies should be addressed. Moreover, it will provide insights on novel non-invasive/invasive interventional strategies and on Exo-based therapies as a challenge for improving patient’s long-term complications. Finally, approaches for improving Exo healing properties, and topics still unsolved to move towards Exo clinical application will be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiac ischemic disease; cardiac regeneration; stem cells; exosomes; therapeutic approaches cardiac ischemic disease; cardiac regeneration; stem cells; exosomes; therapeutic approaches
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Caccioppo, A.; Franchin, L.; Grosso, A.; Angelini, F.; D’Ascenzo, F.; Brizzi, M.F. Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Mechanisms of Damage/Protection and Novel Strategies for Cardiac Recovery/Regeneration. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5024.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop