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Magnesium Is a Key Regulator of the Balance between Osteoclast and Osteoblast Differentiation in the Presence of Vitamin D3

1
Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41125 Modena, Italy
2
Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences “L. Sacco”, University of Milano, 20157 Milano, Italy
3
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41125 Modena, Italy
4
Center for Genome Research, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41125 Modena, Italy
5
Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, 40127 Bologna, Italy
6
National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (NIBB), 00136 Rome, Italy
7
Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41125 Modena, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020385
Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium in Differentiation and Development)
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Abstract

Magnesium (Mg) is crucial for bone health. Low concentrations of Mg inhibit the activity of osteoblasts while promoting that of osteoclasts, with the final result of inducing osteopenia. Conversely, little is known about the effects of high concentrations of extracellular Mg on osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Since the differentiation and activation of these cells is coordinated by vitamin D3 (VD3), we investigated the effects of high extracellular Mg, as well as its impact on VD3 activity, in these cells. U937 cells were induced to osteoclastic differentiation by VD3 in the presence of supra-physiological concentrations (>1 mM) of extracellular Mg. The effect of high Mg concentrations was also studied in human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs) induced to differentiate into osteoblasts by VD3. We demonstrate that high extra-cellular Mg levels potentiate VD3-induced osteoclastic differentiation, while decreasing osteoblastogenesis. We hypothesize that Mg might reprogram VD3 activity on bone remodeling, causing an unbalanced activation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnesium; biodegradable magnesium alloys; osteoclasts; hematopoietic U937 cells; human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells; vitamin D3 magnesium; biodegradable magnesium alloys; osteoclasts; hematopoietic U937 cells; human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells; vitamin D3
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Mammoli, F.; Castiglioni, S.; Parenti, S.; Cappadone, C.; Farruggia, G.; Iotti, S.; Davalli, P.; Maier, J.A.; Grande, A.; Frassineti, C. Magnesium Is a Key Regulator of the Balance between Osteoclast and Osteoblast Differentiation in the Presence of Vitamin D3. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 385.

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