Diabetic neuropathy is a serious complication of chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes patients. This complication can involve both peripheral sensorimotor and autonomic nervous system. The precise nature of injury to the peripheral nerves mediated by chronic hyperglycemia is unknown; however, several mechanisms have been proposed including polyol pathway activation, enhanced glycation of proteins and lipids, increased oxidative stress, and cytokine release in the site of injury. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that mediate RNA interference by post-transcriptionally modulating gene expression and protein synthesis. Therefore, they have been implicated in several developmental, physiological, and pathophysiological processes where they modulate the expression of different proteins. Recently, miRNAs gained an increasing attention also for their role as diagnostic test in many diseases due to their stability in serum and their easy detection. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that miRNAs may be involved in diabetic neuropathy although their role in the onset and the development of this complication is not fully understood. In this review, we discuss the most recent literature providing evidence for miRNAs role in diabetic neuropathy opening new pathways to improve both early diagnosis and treatment of this complication.
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