Next Article in Journal
Decreased Level of Neurotrophic Factor Neuritin 1 in Women with Ovarian Endometriosis after Receiving Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Treatment
Next Article in Special Issue
MicroRNA Biogenesis Pathway Genes Are Deregulated in Colorectal Cancer
Previous Article in Journal
AFM-based Analysis of Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Circular RNAs: Biogenesis, Mechanism, and Function in Human Cancers
Open AccessReview

Human Circulating miRNAs Real-time qRT-PCR-based Analysis: An Overview of Endogenous Reference Genes Used for Data Normalization

1
Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences “Mario Serio”, University of Study of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence, Italy
2
Unit of Bone and Mineral Diseases, University Hospital of Florence, Largo Palagi 1, 50139 Florence, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4353; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184353
Received: 17 July 2019 / Revised: 30 August 2019 / Accepted: 2 September 2019 / Published: 5 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNA Biogenesis and Function)
miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs of about 18–25 nucleotides that negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. It was reported that a deregulation of their expression patterns correlates to the onset and progression of various diseases. Recently, these molecules have been identified in a great plethora of biological fluids, and have also been proposed as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Actually, real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction is the most widely used approach for circulating miRNAs (c-miRNAs) expression profiling. Nevertheless, the debate on the choice of the most suitable endogenous reference genes for c-miRNAs expression levels normalization is still open. In this regard, numerous research groups are focusing their efforts upon identifying specific, highly stable, endogenous c-mRNAs. The aim of this review is to provide an overview on the reference genes currently used in the study of various pathologies, offering to researchers the opportunity to select the appropriate molecules for c-miRNA levels normalization, when their choosing is based upon literature data. View Full-Text
Keywords: circulating microRNAs; endogenous reference genes; non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers; real-time qRT-PCR circulating microRNAs; endogenous reference genes; non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers; real-time qRT-PCR
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Donati, S.; Ciuffi, S.; Brandi, M.L. Human Circulating miRNAs Real-time qRT-PCR-based Analysis: An Overview of Endogenous Reference Genes Used for Data Normalization. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4353.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop