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Neuroprotective Properties of Linagliptin: Focus on Biochemical Mechanisms in Cerebral Ischemia, Vascular Dysfunction and Certain Neurodegenerative Diseases

1
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University, M. Curie 9, 85-090 Bydgoszcz, Poland
2
Department of Hepatobiliary and General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University, M. Curie 9, 85-090 Bydgoszcz, Poland
3
Department of Pathophysiology of Hearing and Balance System, Faculty of Medicine, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University, M. Curie 9, 85-090 Bydgoszcz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(16), 4052; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20164052
Received: 19 July 2019 / Revised: 16 August 2019 / Accepted: 17 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction 2019)
Linagliptin is a representative of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors which are registered and used effectively in a treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. They increase the levels of active forms of endogenous incretins such as GLP-1 and GIP by inhibiting their enzymatic decomposition. Scientific reports suggest beneficial effects of linagliptin administration via immunological and biochemical pathways involved in neuroprotective processes of CNS. Linagliptin’s administration leads to a decrease in the concentration of proinflammatory factors such as: TNF-α, IL-6 and increases the number of anti-inflammatory patrolling monocytes CX3CR1bright. Significant reduction in Aβ42 level has been associated with the use of linagliptin implying potential application in Alzheimer’s disease. Linagliptin improved vascular functions by increasing production of nitric oxide (NO) and limiting concentration of apolipoprotein B. Linagliptin-induced decrease in macrophages infiltration may provide improvement in atheromatous plaque stabilization. Premedication with linagliptin increases neuron’s survival after stroke and augments neuronal stem cells proliferation. It seems to be connected with SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling pathway. Linagliptin prevented abnormal proliferation and migration of rat brain microvascular endothelial cells in a state of hypoperfusion via SIRT1/HIF-1α/VEGF pathway. The article presents a summary of the studies assessing neuroprotective properties of linagliptin with special emphasis on cerebral ischemia, vascular dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: linagliptin; inflammation; pathways; neurodegeneration; pharmacology linagliptin; inflammation; pathways; neurodegeneration; pharmacology
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Wiciński, M.; Górski, K.; Walczak, M.; Wódkiewicz, E.; Słupski, M.; Pawlak-Osińska, K.; Malinowski, B. Neuroprotective Properties of Linagliptin: Focus on Biochemical Mechanisms in Cerebral Ischemia, Vascular Dysfunction and Certain Neurodegenerative Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4052.

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