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Dual Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Muscle Function: Can Antioxidant Dietary Supplements Counteract Age-Related Sarcopenia?

Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Via S. Pansini, 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(15), 3815; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20153815
Received: 3 July 2019 / Revised: 30 July 2019 / Accepted: 1 August 2019 / Published: 5 August 2019
Sarcopenia is characterized by the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. In older people, malnutrition and physical inactivity are often associated with sarcopenia, and, therefore, dietary interventions and exercise must be considered to prevent, delay, or treat it. Among the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to sarcopenia, a key role is played by an increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) levels and a decrease in enzymatic antioxidant protection leading to oxidative stress. Many studies have evaluated, in addition to the effects of exercise, the effects of antioxidant dietary supplements in limiting age-related muscle mass and performance, but the data which have been reported are conflicting. In skeletal muscle, ROS/RNS have a dual function: at low levels they increase muscle force and adaptation to exercise, while at high levels they lead to a decline of muscle performance. Controversial results obtained with antioxidant supplementation in older persons could in part reflect the lack of univocal effects of ROS on muscle mass and function. The purpose of this review is to examine the molecular mechanisms underlying the dual effects of ROS in skeletal muscle function and the analysis of literature data on dietary antioxidant supplementation associated with exercise in normal and sarcopenic subjects. View Full-Text
Keywords: sarcopenia; reactive oxygen species; redox signaling; antioxidant supplementation; exercise sarcopenia; reactive oxygen species; redox signaling; antioxidant supplementation; exercise
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Damiano, S.; Muscariello, E.; La Rosa, G.; Di Maro, M.; Mondola, P.; Santillo, M. Dual Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Muscle Function: Can Antioxidant Dietary Supplements Counteract Age-Related Sarcopenia? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3815.

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