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Open AccessArticle

Flavonoids from Chionanthus retusus (Oleaceae) Flowers and Their Protective Effects against Glutamate-Induced Cell Toxicity in HT22 Cells

Graduate School of Biotechnology and Department of Oriental Medicinal Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea
College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju 61452, Korea
Strategic Planning Division, National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon 22689, Korea
Department of Herbal Crop Research, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, RDA, Eumseong 27709, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(14), 3517;
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 13 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Neuroprotection)
PDF [1958 KB, uploaded 18 July 2019]
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The dried flowers of Chionanthus retusus were extracted with 80% MeOH, and the concentrate was divided into EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H2O fractions. Repeated SiO2, octadecyl SiO2 (ODS), and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography of the EtOAc fraction led to the isolation of four flavonols (14), three flavones (57), four flavanonols (811), and one flavanone (12), which were identified based on extensive analysis of various spectroscopic data. Flavonoids 46 and 811 were isolated from the flowers of C. retusus for the first time in this study. Flavonoids 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, and 1012 significantly inhibited NO production in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and glutamate-induced cell toxicity and effectively increased HO-1 protein expression in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Flavonoids with significant neuroprotective activity were also found to recover oxidative-stress-induced cell damage by increasing HO-1 protein expression. This article demonstrates that flavonoids from C. retusus flowers have significant potential as therapeutic materials in inflammation and neurodisease. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chionanthus retusus; flavonoid; flower; HO-1; neuroprotection; NO Chionanthus retusus; flavonoid; flower; HO-1; neuroprotection; NO

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Lee, Y.-G.; Lee, H.; Jung, J.-W.; Seo, K.-H.; Lee, D.Y.; Kim, H.-G.; Ko, J.-H.; Lee, D.-S.; Baek, N.-I. Flavonoids from Chionanthus retusus (Oleaceae) Flowers and Their Protective Effects against Glutamate-Induced Cell Toxicity in HT22 Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3517.

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