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Sphingolipid/Ceramide Pathways and Autophagy in the Onset and Progression of Melanoma: Novel Therapeutic Targets and Opportunities

1
Retrovirus Center and Virology Section, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, 56127 Pisa, Italy
2
Virology Unit, Pisa University Hospital, 56127 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(14), 3436; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20143436
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
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Abstract

Melanoma is a malignant tumor deriving from neoplastic transformation of melanocytes. The incidence of melanoma has increased dramatically over the last 50 years. It accounts for most cases of skin cancer deaths. Early diagnosis leads to remission in 90% of cases of melanoma; conversely, for melanoma at more advanced stages, prognosis becomes more unfavorable also because dvanced melanoma is often resistant to pharmacological and radiological therapies due to genetic plasticity, presence of cancer stem cells that regenerate the tumor, and efficient elimination of drugs. This review illustrates the role of autophagy in tumor progression and resistance to therapy, focusing on molecular targets for future drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: melanoma; sphingolipids; ceramides; acid ceramidase; multidrug resistance; autophagy melanoma; sphingolipids; ceramides; acid ceramidase; multidrug resistance; autophagy
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Lai, M.; La Rocca, V.; Amato, R.; Freer, G.; Pistello, M. Sphingolipid/Ceramide Pathways and Autophagy in the Onset and Progression of Melanoma: Novel Therapeutic Targets and Opportunities. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3436.

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