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Cerebrovascular and Neurological Disorders: Protective Role of NRF2

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX 79106, USA
2
Center for Blood Brain Barrier Research, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX 79106, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(14), 3433; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20143433
Received: 13 June 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 6 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Nrf2 pathway: regulation, functions, and potential applications)
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PDF [2702 KB, uploaded 12 July 2019]
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Abstract

Cellular defense mechanisms, intracellular signaling, and physiological functions are regulated by electrophiles and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent works strongly considered imbalanced ROS and electrophile overabundance as the leading cause of cellular and tissue damage, whereas oxidative stress (OS) plays a crucial role for the onset and progression of major cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative pathologies. These include Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington’s disease (HD), stroke, and aging. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (NRF2) is the major modulator of the xenobiotic-activated receptor (XAR) and is accountable for activating the antioxidative response elements (ARE)-pathway modulating the detoxification and antioxidative responses of the cells. NRF2 activity, however, is also implicated in carcinogenesis protection, stem cells regulation, anti-inflammation, anti-aging, and so forth. Herein, we briefly describe the NRF2–ARE pathway and provide a review analysis of its functioning and system integration as well as its role in major CNS disorders. We also discuss NRF2-based therapeutic approaches for the treatment of neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxidative stress; pathway; NRF2; cerebrovascular; neurodegenerative; alternative oxidative stress; pathway; NRF2; cerebrovascular; neurodegenerative; alternative
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Sivandzade, F.; Bhalerao, A.; Cucullo, L. Cerebrovascular and Neurological Disorders: Protective Role of NRF2. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3433.

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