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Analysis of Human Colon by Raman Spectroscopy and Imaging-Elucidation of Biochemical Changes in Carcinogenesis

1
Laboratory of Laser Molecular Spectroscopy, Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, Wroblewskiego 15, 93-590 Lodz, Poland
2
Medical University of Lodz, Department of Pathology, Chair of Oncology, Paderewskiego 4, 93-509 Lodz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(14), 3398; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20143398
Received: 12 June 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Oncology)
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Abstract

Noninvasive Raman imaging of non-fixed and unstained human colon tissues based on vibrational properties of noncancerous and cancerous samples can effectively enable the differentiation between noncancerous and tumor tissues. This work aimed to evaluate the biochemical characteristics of colon cancer and the clinical merits of multivariate Raman image and spectroscopy analysis. Tissue samples were collected during routine surgery. The non-fixed, fresh samples were used to prepare micrometer sections from the tumor mass and the tissue from the safety margins outside of the tumor mass. Adjacent sections were used for typical histological analysis. We have found that the chemical composition identified by Raman spectroscopy of the cancerous and the noncancerous colon samples is sufficiently different to distinguish pathologically changed tissue from noncancerous tissue. We present a detailed analysis of Raman spectra for the human noncancerous and cancerous colon tissue. The multivariate analysis of the intensities of lipids/proteins/carotenoids Raman peaks shows that these classes of compounds can statistically divide analyzed samples into noncancerous and pathological groups, reaffirming that Raman imaging is a powerful technique for the histochemical analysis of human tissues. Raman biomarkers based on ratios for lipids/proteins/carotenoids content were found to be the most useful biomarkers in spectroscopic diagnostics. View Full-Text
Keywords: Raman spectroscopy; Raman imaging; colon cancer; biomarkers; spectroscopic diagnostics Raman spectroscopy; Raman imaging; colon cancer; biomarkers; spectroscopic diagnostics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Brozek-Pluska, B.; Musial, J.; Kordek, R.; Abramczyk, H. Analysis of Human Colon by Raman Spectroscopy and Imaging-Elucidation of Biochemical Changes in Carcinogenesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3398.

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