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Open AccessArticle

Cellular Effects of Butyrate on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells are Mediated through Disparate Actions on Dual Targets, Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Activity and PI3K/Akt Signaling Network

Department of Pharmaceutical and Environmental Health Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Texas Southern University, 3100 Cleburne St, Houston, TX 77004, USA
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 2902; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20122902
Received: 22 May 2019 / Revised: 8 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Health and Disease)
Vascular remodeling is a characteristic feature of cardiovascular diseases. Altered cellular processes of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a crucial component in vascular remodeling. Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI), butyrate, arrests VSMC proliferation and promotes cell growth. The objective of the study is to determine the mechanism of butyrate-induced VSMC growth. Using proliferating VSMCs exposed to 5 mM butyrate, immunoblotting studies are performed to determine whether PI3K/Akt pathway that regulates different cellular effects is a target of butyrate-induced VSMC growth. Butyrate inhibits phosphorylation-dependent activation of PI3K, PDK1, and Akt, eliciting differential effects on downstream targets of Akt. Along with previously reported Ser9 phosphorylation-mediated GSK3 inactivation leading to stability, increased expression and accumulation of cyclin D1, and epigenetic histone modifications, inactivation of Akt by butyrate results in: transcriptional activation of FOXO1 and FOXO3 promoting G1 arrest through p21Cip1/Waf1 and p15INK4B upregulation; inactivation of mTOR inhibiting activation of its targets p70S6K and 4E-BP1 impeding protein synthesis; inhibition of caspase 3 cleavage and downregulation of PARP preventing apoptosis. Our findings imply butyrate abrogates Akt activation, causing differential effects on Akt targets promoting convergence of cross-talk between their complimentary actions leading to VSMC growth by arresting proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis through its effect on dual targets, HDAC activity and PI3K/Akt pathway network. View Full-Text
Keywords: vascular smooth muscle cells; butyrate; histone deacetylase inhibitor; signaling; Akt vascular smooth muscle cells; butyrate; histone deacetylase inhibitor; signaling; Akt
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mathew, O.P.; Ranganna, K.; Mathew, J.; Zhu, M.; Yousefipour, Z.; Selvam, C.; Milton, S.G. Cellular Effects of Butyrate on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells are Mediated through Disparate Actions on Dual Targets, Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Activity and PI3K/Akt Signaling Network. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2902.

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