Next Article in Journal
Early Developmental Zebrafish Embryo Extract to Modulate Senescence in Multisource Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Next Article in Special Issue
Editorial for Special Issue “Molecular Advances in Wheat and Barley”
Previous Article in Journal
Is Chickpea a Potential Substitute for Soybean? Phenolic Bioactives and Potential Health Benefits
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Dark Matter of Large Cereal Genomes: Long Tandem Repeats
Open AccessReview

Cas Endonuclease Technology—A Quantum Leap in the Advancement of Barley and Wheat Genetic Engineering

Plant Reproductive Biology, Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK) Gatersleben, 06466 Seeland, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(11), 2647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20112647
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Advances in Wheat and Barley)
Domestication and breeding have created productive crops that are adapted to the climatic conditions of their growing regions. Initially, this process solely relied on the frequent occurrence of spontaneous mutations and the recombination of resultant gene variants. Later, treatments with ionizing radiation or mutagenic chemicals facilitated dramatically increased mutation rates, which remarkably extended the genetic diversity of crop plants. However, a major drawback of conventionally induced mutagenesis is that genetic alterations occur simultaneously across the whole genome and at very high numbers per individual plant. By contrast, the newly emerging Cas endonuclease technology allows for the induction of mutations at user-defined positions in the plant genome. In fundamental and breeding-oriented research, this opens up unprecedented opportunities for the elucidation of gene functions and the targeted improvement of plant performance. This review covers historical aspects of the development of customizable endonucleases, information on the mechanisms of targeted genome modification, as well as hitherto reported applications of Cas endonuclease technology in barley and wheat that are the agronomically most important members of the temperate cereals. Finally, current trends in the further development of this technology and some ensuing future opportunities for research and biotechnological application are presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: cereals; CRISPR; crops; genetic engineering; genome editing; plant; Triticeae cereals; CRISPR; crops; genetic engineering; genome editing; plant; Triticeae
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Koeppel, I.; Hertig, C.; Hoffie, R.; Kumlehn, J. Cas Endonuclease Technology—A Quantum Leap in the Advancement of Barley and Wheat Genetic Engineering. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2647.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop