Adipose tissue is now on the top one of stem cell sources regarding its accessibility, abundance, and less painful collection procedure when compared to other sources. The adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) that it contains can be maintained and expanded in culture for long periods of time without losing their differentiation capacity, leading to large cell quantities being increasingly used in cell therapy purposes. Many reports showed that ADSCs-based cell therapy products demonstrated optimal efficacy and efficiency in some clinical indications for both autologous and allogeneic purposes, hence becoming considered as potential tools for replacing, repairing, and regenerating dead or damaged cells. In this review, we analyzed the therapeutic advancement of ADSCs in comparison to bone marrow (BM) and umbilical cord (UC)-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and designed the specific requirements to their best clinical practices and safety. Our analysis was focused on the ADSCs, rather than the whole stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cell populations, to facilitate characterization that is related to their source of origins. Clinical outcomes improvement suggested that these cells hold great promise in stem cell-based therapies in neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and auto-immunes diseases.
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