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Epigenetic Control of Gene Expression in the Normal and Malignant Human Prostate: A Rapid Response Which Promotes Therapeutic Resistance

The Cancer Research Unit, Department of Biology, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(10), 2437; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20102437
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 29 April 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetics of Urological Cancers)
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Abstract

A successful prostate cancer must be capable of changing its phenotype in response to a variety of microenvironmental influences, such as adaptation to treatment or successful proliferation at a particular metastatic site. New cell phenotypes emerge by selection from the large, genotypically heterogeneous pool of candidate cells present within any tumor mass, including a distinct stem cell-like population. In such a multicellular model of human prostate cancer, flexible responses are primarily governed not only by de novo mutations but appear to be dominated by a combination of epigenetic controls, whose application results in treatment resistance and tumor relapse. Detailed studies of these individual cell populations have resulted in an epigenetic model for epithelial cell differentiation, which is also instructive in explaining the reported high and inevitable relapse rates of human prostate cancers to a multitude of treatment types. View Full-Text
Keywords: epigenetics; heterogeneity; prostate cancer; differentiation; tumor-initiating cells epigenetics; heterogeneity; prostate cancer; differentiation; tumor-initiating cells
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Frame, F.M.; Maitland, N.J. Epigenetic Control of Gene Expression in the Normal and Malignant Human Prostate: A Rapid Response Which Promotes Therapeutic Resistance. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2437.

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