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Open AccessArticle

Increased Chromosome Aberrations in Cells Exposed Simultaneously to Simulated Microgravity and Radiation

1
Radiation Institute for Science & Engineering, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, TX 77446, USA
2
Gunma University Initiative for Advanced Research, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511, Japan
3
KBRwyle, 2400 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77508, USA
4
Heavy Ion Medical Center, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511, Japan
5
Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
6
Department of Cadiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010043
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 22 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Living Organisms in Space: From Mammals to Plants)
Space radiation and microgravity (μG) are two major environmental stressors for humans in space travel. One of the fundamental questions in space biology research is whether the combined effects of μG and exposure to cosmic radiation are interactive. While studies addressing this question have been carried out for half a century in space or using simulated μG on the ground, the reported results are ambiguous. For the assessment and management of human health risks in future Moon and Mars missions, it is necessary to obtain more basic data on the molecular and cellular responses to the combined effects of radiation and µG. Recently we incorporated a μG–irradiation system consisting of a 3D clinostat synchronized to a carbon-ion or X-ray irradiation system. Our new experimental setup allows us to avoid stopping clinostat rotation during irradiation, which was required in all other previous experiments. Using this system, human fibroblasts were exposed to X-rays or carbon ions under the simulated μG condition, and chromosomes were collected with the premature chromosome condensation method in the first mitosis. Chromosome aberrations (CA) were quantified by the 3-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method. Cells exposed to irradiation under the simulated μG condition showed a higher frequency of both simple and complex types of CA compared to cells irradiated under the static condition by either X-rays or carbon ions. View Full-Text
Keywords: microgravity; ionizing radiation; space radiation; chromosome aberration microgravity; ionizing radiation; space radiation; chromosome aberration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hada, M.; Ikeda, H.; Rhone, J.R.; Beitman, A.J.; Plante, I.; Souda, H.; Yoshida, Y.; Held, K.D.; Fujiwara, K.; Saganti, P.B.; Takahashi, A. Increased Chromosome Aberrations in Cells Exposed Simultaneously to Simulated Microgravity and Radiation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 43. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010043

AMA Style

Hada M, Ikeda H, Rhone JR, Beitman AJ, Plante I, Souda H, Yoshida Y, Held KD, Fujiwara K, Saganti PB, Takahashi A. Increased Chromosome Aberrations in Cells Exposed Simultaneously to Simulated Microgravity and Radiation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(1):43. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010043

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hada, Megumi; Ikeda, Hiroko; Rhone, Jordan R.; Beitman, Andrew J.; Plante, Ianik; Souda, Hikaru; Yoshida, Yukari; Held, Kathryn D.; Fujiwara, Keigi; Saganti, Premkumar B.; Takahashi, Akihisa. 2019. "Increased Chromosome Aberrations in Cells Exposed Simultaneously to Simulated Microgravity and Radiation" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, no. 1: 43. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010043

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