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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010228

Relapse of Acute Myeloid Leukemia after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: Prevention, Detection, and Treatment

Department of Hematology, Oncology and Clinical Immunology, University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, 40225 Duesseldorf, Germany
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Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics, Biology, and Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia)
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Abstract

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a phenotypically and prognostically heterogeneous hematopoietic stem cell disease that may be cured in eligible patients with intensive chemotherapy and/or allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Tremendous advances in sequencing technologies have revealed a large amount of molecular information which has markedly improved our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and enables a better classification and risk estimation. Furthermore, with the approval of the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) inhibitor Midostaurin a first targeted therapy has been introduced into the first-line therapy of younger patients with FLT3-mutated AML and several other small molecules targeting molecular alterations such as isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations or the anti-apoptotic b-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) protein are currently under investigation. Despite these advances, many patients will have to undergo allo-SCT during the course of disease and depending on disease and risk status up to half of them will finally relapse after transplant. Here we review the current knowledge about the molecular landscape of AML and how this can be employed to prevent, detect and treat relapse of AML after allo-SCT. View Full-Text
Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia; allogeneic transplantation; relapse; maintenance; minimal residual disease; salvage therapy acute myeloid leukemia; allogeneic transplantation; relapse; maintenance; minimal residual disease; salvage therapy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Rautenberg, C.; Germing, U.; Haas, R.; Kobbe, G.; Schroeder, T. Relapse of Acute Myeloid Leukemia after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: Prevention, Detection, and Treatment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 228.

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