-acetylglucosamine glycosylation (O
-GlcNAcylation) regulates many biological processes. Studies have shown that O
-GlcNAc modification levels can increase during acute stress and suggested that this may contribute to the survival of the cell. This study investigated the possible effects of O
-GlcNAcylation that regulate glucose metabolism, apoptosis, and autophagy in the liver after acute cold stress. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cold conditions (4 °C) for 0, 2, 4, and 6 h, then their livers were extracted and the expression of proteins involved in glucose metabolism, apoptosis, and autophagy was determined. It was found that acute cold stress increased global O
-GlcNAcylation and protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation levels. This was accompanied by significantly increased activation levels of the glucose metabolism regulators 160 kDa AKT substrate (AS160), 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 2 (PFKFB2), and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β). The levels of glycolytic intermediates, fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) and pyruvic acid (PA), were found to show a brief increase followed by a sharp decrease. Additionally, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), as the main cellular energy source, had a sharp increase. Furthermore, the B-cell lymphoma 2(Bcl-2)/Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) ratio was found to increase, whereas cysteine-aspartic acid protease 3 (caspase-3) and light chain 3-II (LC3-II) levels were reduced after acute cold stress. Therefore, acute cold stress was found to increase O
-GlcNAc modification levels, which may have resulted in the decrease of the essential processes of apoptosis and autophagy, promoting cell survival, while altering glycose transport, glycogen synthesis, and glycolysis in the liver.
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