Humans and nonhuman primates (NHP) are similar in behavior and in physiology, specifically the structure, function, and complexity of the immune system. Thus, NHP models are desirable for pathophysiology and pharmacology/toxicology studies. Furthermore, NHP-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may enable transformative developmental, translational, or evolutionary studies in a field of inquiry currently hampered by the limited availability of research specimens. NHP-iPSCs may address specific questions that can be studied back and forth between in vitro cellular assays and in vivo experimentations, an investigational process that in most cases cannot be performed on humans because of safety and ethical issues. The use of NHP model systems and cell specific in vitro models is evolving with iPSC-based three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems and organoids, which may offer reliable in vitro models and reduce the number of animals used in experimental research. IPSCs have the potential to give rise to defined cell types of any organ of the body. However, standards for deriving defined and validated NHP iPSCs are missing. Standards for deriving high-quality iPSC cell lines promote rigorous and replicable scientific research and likewise, validated cell lines reduce variability and discrepancies in results between laboratories. We have derived and validated NHP iPSC lines by confirming their pluripotency and propensity to differentiate into all three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) according to standards and measurable limits for a set of marker genes. The iPSC lines were characterized for their potential to generate neural stem cells and to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons. These iPSC lines are available to the scientific community. NHP-iPSCs fulfill a unique niche in comparative genomics to understand gene regulatory principles underlying emergence of human traits, in infectious disease pathogenesis, in vaccine development, and in immunological barriers in regenerative medicine.
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