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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2770; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092770

Mackerel-Derived Fermented Fish Oil Promotes Hair Growth by Anagen-Stimulating Pathways

1
Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehakno, Jeju 63243, Korea
2
Choung Ryong Fisheries Co. Ltd., 7825 Iljudong-ro, Namwon-epu, Seogwipo, Jeju 63612, Korea
3
Jeju Research Center for Natural Medicine, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehakno, Jeju 63243, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Abstract

Hair growth is regulated by the interaction between dermal papilla cells (DPC) and other cells inside the hair follicle. Here, we show the effect and action mechanism of mackerel-derived fermented fish oil (FFO) extract and its component docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the control of hair growth. The hair growth effect of FFO extract was evaluated by the culture method of vibrissa follicles and in vivo dotmatrix planimetry method. FFO extract increased the length of hair-fibers and enabled stimulated initiation into the anagen phase of the hair cycle. As expected, FFO extract significantly increased DPC proliferation. FFO extract induced the progression of the cell cycle and the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 and Akt. FFO extract induced nuclear translocation of β-catenin, a stimulator of anagen phase, through an increase of phospho-glycogen synthase kinase3β (GSK3β) level. Since various prostaglandins are known to promote hair growth in humans and mice, we examined the effect of DHA, a main omega-3 fatty acid of FFO, on DPC proliferation. DHA not only increased DPC proliferation but also upregulated levels of cell cycle-associated proteins such as cyclin D1 and cdc2 p34. These results show that FFO extract and DHA promote hair growth through the anagen-activating pathways in DPC. View Full-Text
Keywords: mackerel-derived fermented fish oil; docosahexaenoic acid; hair growth; dermal papilla cells; anagen; cell cycle progression; extracellular signal–regulated kinase; p38; Akt; β-catenin mackerel-derived fermented fish oil; docosahexaenoic acid; hair growth; dermal papilla cells; anagen; cell cycle progression; extracellular signal–regulated kinase; p38; Akt; β-catenin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kang, J.-I.; Yoon, H.-S.; Kim, S.M.; Park, J.E.; Hyun, Y.J.; Ko, A.; Ahn, Y.-S.; Koh, Y.S.; Hyun, J.W.; Yoo, E.-S.; Kang, H.-K. Mackerel-Derived Fermented Fish Oil Promotes Hair Growth by Anagen-Stimulating Pathways. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2770.

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