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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2722; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092722

Ex Vivo and in Vivo Study of Sucrosomial® Iron Intestinal Absorption and Bioavailability

1
Department of Pharmacy, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
2
Pharmanutra S.p.A., 56122 Pisa, Italy
3
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
4
Interdepartmental Research Center Nutraceuticals and Food for Health, University of Pisa, 56124 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 9 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomedicine/Molecular Medicine)
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Abstract

The present study aimed to demonstrate that Sideral® RM (SRM, Sucrosomial® Raw Material Iron) is transported across the excised intestine via a biological mechanism, and to investigate the effect that this transport route may produce on oral iron absorption, which is expected to reduce the gastrointestinal (GI) side effects caused by the bioavailability of non-absorbed iron. Excised rat intestine was exposed to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled SRM in Ussing chambers followed by confocal laser scanning microscopy to look for the presence of fluorescein-tagged vesicles of the FITC-labeled SRM. To identify FITC-labeled SRM internalizing cells, an immunofluorescence analysis for macrophages and M cells was performed using specific antibodies. Microscopy analysis revealed the presence of fluorescein positive particulate structures in tissues treated with FITC-labeled SRM. These structures do not disintegrate during transit, and concentrate in macrophage cells. Iron bioavailability was assessed by determining the time-course of Fe3+ plasma levels. As references, iron contents in liver, spleen, and bone marrow were determined in healthy rats treated by gavage with SRM or ferric pyrophosphate salt (FP). SRM significantly increased both area under the curve (AUC) and clearance maxima (Cmax) compared to FP, thus increasing iron bioavailability (AUCrel = 1.8). This led to increased iron availability in the bone marrow at 5 h after single dose gavage. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron bioavailability; self-assembled vesicles; sucrester; lecithin; iron storage iron bioavailability; self-assembled vesicles; sucrester; lecithin; iron storage
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Fabiano, A.; Brilli, E.; Mattii, L.; Testai, L.; Moscato, S.; Citi, V.; Tarantino, G.; Zambito, Y. Ex Vivo and in Vivo Study of Sucrosomial® Iron Intestinal Absorption and Bioavailability. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2722.

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