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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2598;

Chitosan Inhibits the Rehabilitation of Damaged Microbes Induced by Photodynamic Inactivation

Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Medical University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 26 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins 2018)
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Previously, we showed that chitosan could augment the biocidal efficacy mediated by photodynamic treatment against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. In this study, we showed that the antimicrobial action of chitosan in augmenting photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is related to the increase in cell surface destruction. The microbial cell surfaces exhibit severe irregular shapes after PDI in the presence of chitosan as demonstrated by transmitted electron microscopy. Furthermore, increases in the concentration or incubation time of chitosan significantly reduced the amounts of photosensitizer toluidine blue O required, indicating that chitosan could be an augmenting agent used in conjunction with PDI against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans. A prolonged lag phase was found in microbial cells that survived to PDI, in which chitosan acted to completely eradicate the cells. Once the exponential log stage and cell rebuild began, their cellular functions from PDI-induced damage returned and the increased cytotoxic effect of chitosan disappeared. Together, our results suggest that chitosan can prevent the rehabilitation of PDI-surviving microbial cells, leading to increased biocidal efficacy. View Full-Text
Keywords: photodynamic treatment; microbial killing; cell wall photodynamic treatment; microbial killing; cell wall

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Lin, C.-H.; Chien, H.-F.; Lin, M.-H.; Chen, C.-P.; Shen, M.; Chen, C.-T. Chitosan Inhibits the Rehabilitation of Damaged Microbes Induced by Photodynamic Inactivation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2598.

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