Breast cancer is the second most common cancer and the second leading cause of death from cancer among women in the United States (US). Cancer prevention and therapy through the use of phytochemicals that have epigenetic properties has gained considerable interest during the past few decades. Such dietary components include, but are not limited to, grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) and resveratrol (Res), both of which are present in red wine. In this study, we report for the first time the synergistic effects of GSPs and Res on inhibiting MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Our results of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and clonogenic assays indicate that treatments with the combinations of GSPs and Res synergistically decreased cell viability and posttreatment cell proliferation in both cell lines. Additional analyses show that treatments with GSPs and Res in combination synergistically induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells by upregulating Bax expression and down-regulating Bcl-2 expression. DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity were greatly reduced in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells after treatments with GSPs and Res in combination. Collectively, our findings suggest that GSPs and Res synergistically inhibit human breast cancer cells through inducing apoptosis, as well as modulating DNA methylation and histone modifications.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited