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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1986; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071986

Date Palm Trees Root-Derived Endophytes as Fungal Cell Factories for Diverse Bioactive Metabolites

1
Faculty of Science, B.P. 1171, 3000, University of Sfax, 3029 Sfax, Tunisia
2
Plant Protection Research Department, East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, 5153715898 Tabriz, Iran
3
School of Science and Sport, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE, UK
4
Labroratory of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax, University of Sfax,95, 3052 Sfax, Tunisia
5
Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences, Ferhat Abbas University, 19000 Setif, Algeria
6
Department of Food Science & Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tripoli, 13275 Tripoli, Libya
7
NextBiotech, 98 Rue Ali Belhouane, 3030 Agareb, Tunisia
8
Neuchâtel Platform of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Neuchâtel, 2000 Neuchâtel, Switzerland
9
Forest Research Institute, 05-090 Raszyn, Poland
10
Department of Food Science & Technology and Human Nutrition, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
11
Laboratory of Soil Biology, University of Neuchatel, 2000 Neuchatel, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 May 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 7 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Abstract

Endophytic fungi of healthy and brittle leaf diseased (BLD) date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) represent a promising source of bioactive compounds with biomedical, industrial, and pharmaceutical applications. The fungal endophytes Penicillium citrinum isolate TDPEF34, and Geotrichum candidum isolate TDPEF20 from healthy and BLD date palm trees, respectively, proved very effective in confrontation assays against three pathogenic bacteria, including two Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and Enterococcus faecalis (Ef), and one Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella enterica (St). They also inhibited the growth of three fungi Trichoderma sp. (Ti), Fusarium sporotrichioides (Fs), Trichoderma sp. (Ts). Additionally, their volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were shown to be in part responsible for the inhibition of Ti and Ts and could account for the full inhibition of Fs. Therefore, we have explored their potential as fungal cell factories for bioactive metabolites production. Four extracts of each endophyte were prepared using different solvent polarities, ethanol (EtOH), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), hexane (Hex), and methanol (MetOH). Both endophyte species showed varying degrees of inhibition of the bacterial and fungal pathogens according to the solvent used. These results suggest a good relationship between fungal bioactivities and their produced secondary metabolites. Targeting the discovery of potential anti-diabetic, anti-hemolysis, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and cytotoxic activities, endophytic extracts showed promising results. The EtOAc extract of G. candidum displayed IC50 value comparable to the positive control diclofenac sodium in the anti-inflammatory assays. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, reducing power (RP), and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonique) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. The findings revealed strong anti-oxidant power with an IC50 of 177.55 µg/mL for G. candidum EtOAc extract using DPPH assay, probably due to high polyphenol and flavonoid content in both fungal extracts. Finally, LC-HRMS (Liquid Chromatography–High Resolution Mass Spectrometry) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry) analysis of G. candidum and P. citrinum extracts revealed an impressive arsenal of compounds with previously reported biological activities, partly explaining the obtained results. Finally, LC-HRMS analysis indicated the presence of new fungal metabolites that have never been reported, which represent good candidates to follow for the discovery of new bioactive molecules. View Full-Text
Keywords: brittle leaf disease; antimicrobial activity; anti-diabetic; cytotoxic; anti-obesity; anti-inflammatory; anti-haemolysis; anti-oxidant brittle leaf disease; antimicrobial activity; anti-diabetic; cytotoxic; anti-obesity; anti-inflammatory; anti-haemolysis; anti-oxidant
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ben Mefteh, F.; Daoud, A.; Chenari Bouket, A.; Thissera, B.; Kadri, Y.; Cherif-Silini, H.; Eshelli, M.; Alenezi, F.N.; Vallat, A.; Oszako, T.; Kadri, A.; Ros-García, J.M.; Rateb, M.E.; Gharsallah, N.; Belbahri, L. Date Palm Trees Root-Derived Endophytes as Fungal Cell Factories for Diverse Bioactive Metabolites. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1986.

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