Next Article in Journal
Gold Nanoparticles in Diagnostics and Therapeutics for Human Cancer
Next Article in Special Issue
Senescent Microvesicles: A Novel Advance in Molecular Mechanisms of Atherosclerotic Calcification
Previous Article in Journal
A Child with a c.6923_6928dup (p.Arg2308_Met2309dup) SPTAN1 Mutation Associated with a Severe Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy
Previous Article in Special Issue
Unravelling HDL—Looking beyond the Cholesterol Surface to the Quality Within
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1978;

Roles of Oral Infections in the Pathomechanism of Atherosclerosis

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Center for Dental and Oral Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 30 June 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathomechanisms of Atherosclerosis)
Full-Text   |   PDF [646 KB, uploaded 6 July 2018]   |  


Oral infections occur frequently in humans and often lead to chronic inflammations affecting the teeth (i.e., caries), the gingival tissues surrounding the teeth (i.e., gingivitis and endodontic lesions), and the tooth-supporting structures (i.e., periodontitis). At least four basic pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed that involve oral inflammations in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: (1) low level bacteremia by which oral bacteria enter the blood stream and invade the arterial wall; (2) systemic inflammation induced by inflammatory mediators released from the sites of the oral inflammation into the blood stream; (3) autoimmunity to host proteins caused by the host immune response to specific components of oral pathogens; (4) pro-atherogenic effects resulting from specific bacterial toxins that are produced by oral pathogenic bacteria. In this narrative review, we summarize published experimental evidence related to these four mechanisms and discuss their impact on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: coronary artery disease risk; stroke risk; myocardial infarction; periodontitis; endodontic lesions; chronic inflammation coronary artery disease risk; stroke risk; myocardial infarction; periodontitis; endodontic lesions; chronic inflammation

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Aarabi, G.; Heydecke, G.; Seedorf, U. Roles of Oral Infections in the Pathomechanism of Atherosclerosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1978.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top