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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1946; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071946

Red (635 nm), Near-Infrared (808 nm) and Violet-Blue (405 nm) Photobiomodulation Potentiality on Human Osteoblasts and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: A Morphological and Molecular In Vitro Study

1
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine—Section of Anatomy and Histology, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla 3, 50134 Florence, Italy
2
Odontostomatologic Laser Therapy Center, via dell’ Olivuzzo 162, 50143 Florence, Italy
These authors contributed equally to the work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 3 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Application in Life Sciences 2018)
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Abstract

Photobiomodulation (PBM) has been used for bone regenerative purposes in different fields of medicine and dentistry, but contradictory results demand a skeptical look for its potential benefits. This in vitro study compared PBM potentiality by red (635 ± 5 nm) or near-infrared (NIR, 808 ± 10 nm) diode lasers and violet-blue (405 ± 5 nm) light-emitting diode operating in a continuous wave with a 0.4 J/cm2 energy density, on human osteoblast and mesenchymal stromal cell (hMSC) viability, proliferation, adhesion and osteogenic differentiation. PBM treatments did not alter viability (PI/Syto16 and MTS assays). Confocal immunofluorescence and RT-PCR analyses indicated that red PBM (i) on both cell types increased vinculin-rich clusters, osteogenic markers expression (Runx-2, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin) and mineralized bone-like nodule structure deposition and (ii) on hMSCs induced stress fiber formation and upregulated the expression of proliferation marker Ki67. Interestingly, osteoblast responses to red light were mediated by Akt signaling activation, which seems to positively modulate reactive oxygen species levels. Violet-blue light-irradiated cells behaved essentially as untreated ones and NIR irradiated ones displayed modifications of cytoskeleton assembly, Runx-2 expression and mineralization pattern. Although within the limitations of an in vitro experimentation, this study may suggest PBM with 635 nm laser as potential effective option for promoting/improving bone regeneration. View Full-Text
Keywords: photobiomodulation (PBM); low level laser therapy (LLLT); diode laser; light emitting diode (LED); osteoblasts; mesenchymal stromal cells; bone regeneration; Runx-2; ostepontin; Akt signaling photobiomodulation (PBM); low level laser therapy (LLLT); diode laser; light emitting diode (LED); osteoblasts; mesenchymal stromal cells; bone regeneration; Runx-2; ostepontin; Akt signaling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Tani, A.; Chellini, F.; Giannelli, M.; Nosi, D.; Zecchi-Orlandini, S.; Sassoli, C. Red (635 nm), Near-Infrared (808 nm) and Violet-Blue (405 nm) Photobiomodulation Potentiality on Human Osteoblasts and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: A Morphological and Molecular In Vitro Study. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1946.

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