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Open AccessArticle

A hnRNP K–AR-Related Signature Reflects Progression toward Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

1
Academic Unit of Medical Oncology, Ospedale Policlinico San Martino-IRCCS, L.go R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genova, Italy
2
Institute for High Performance Computing and Networking (ICAR), National Research Council (CNR), Via Pietro Castellino 111, 80131 Napoli, Italy
3
Core Facilities-Proteomics Laboratory, Giannina Gaslini Institute, L.go G. Gaslini 5, 16147 Genova, Italy
4
Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, School of Medicine, University of Genova, L.go R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genova, Italy
5
Molecular Oncology and Angiogenesis, Ospedale Policlinico San Martino-IRCCS, L.go R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genova, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1920; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071920
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 30 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sex Hormone Receptor Signals in Human Malignancies)
The major challenge in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains the ability to predict the clinical responses to improve patient selection for appropriate treatments. The finding that androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) induces alterations in the androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional program by AR coregulators activity in a context-dependent manner, offers the opportunity for identifying signatures discriminating different clinical states of prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Gel electrophoretic analyses combined with western blot showed that, in androgen-dependent PCa and CRPC in vitro models, the subcellular distribution of spliced and serine-phosphorylated heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) isoforms can be associated with different AR activities. Using mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we showed that the protein sets of androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and ADT-resistant cell lines (PDB and MDB) co-immunoprecipitated with hnRNP K varied depending on the cell type, unravelling a dynamic relationship between hnRNP K and AR during PCa progression to CRPC. By comparing the interactome of LNCaP, PDB, and MDB cell lines, we identified 51 proteins differentially interacting with hnRNP K, among which KLK3, SORD, SPON2, IMPDH2, ACTN4, ATP1B1, HSPB1, and KHDRBS1 were associated with AR and differentially expressed in normal and tumor human prostate tissues. This hnRNP K–AR-related signature, associated with androgen sensitivity and PCa progression, may help clinicians to better manage patients with CRPC. View Full-Text
Keywords: castration-resistant prostate cancer; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K; androgen receptor; androgen deprivation therapy castration-resistant prostate cancer; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K; androgen receptor; androgen deprivation therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Capaia, M.; Granata, I.; Guarracino, M.; Petretto, A.; Inglese, E.; Cattrini, C.; Ferrari, N.; Boccardo, F.; Barboro, P. A hnRNP K–AR-Related Signature Reflects Progression toward Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1920.

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