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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1766; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061766

IL-6 and IL-8 Serum Levels Predict Tumor Response and Overall Survival after TACE for Primary and Secondary Hepatic Malignancies

1
Department of Medicine III, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany
2
Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany
3
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Hepatobiliary Oncology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany
These authors share first authorship.
These authors share senior authorship.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation and Cancer 2018)
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Abstract

While surgical resection represents the standard potentially curative therapy for liver cancer, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) has evolved as a standard therapy for intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as well as liver metastases. However, it is still not fully understood which patients particularly benefit from TACE. Cytokines represent a broad category of signaling molecules that might reflect concomitant inflammation as an adverse prognostic factor. Here, we evaluated the role of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and CC-chemokine ligand (CCL)22 as biomarkers in the context of TACE treatment. Cytokine serum levels were analyzed by multiplex immunoassay in 54 patients (HCC: n = 44, liver metastases: n = 10) undergoing TACE as well as 51 healthy controls. Patients with primary and secondary liver cancer showed significantly elevated levels of IL-6 and IL-8 but not CCL22 compared to healthy controls. Interestingly, low pre-interventional levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were predictors for an objective response after TACE in binary logistic regression. In contrast, patients with high pre-interventional IL-6 and IL-8 serum levels not only poorly responded to TACE but had a significantly impaired overall survival. Serum levels of IL-6 and IL-8 represent promising biomarkers for patients undergoing TACE and might help to pre-interventionally identify patients who particularly benefit from TACE regarding objective treatment response and overall survival. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; TACE; cytokines; HCC cancer; TACE; cytokines; HCC
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Loosen, S.H.; Schulze-Hagen, M.; Leyh, C.; Benz, F.; Vucur, M.; Kuhl, C.; Trautwein, C.; Tacke, F.; Bruners, P.; Roderburg, C.; Luedde, T. IL-6 and IL-8 Serum Levels Predict Tumor Response and Overall Survival after TACE for Primary and Secondary Hepatic Malignancies. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1766.

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