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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1765; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061765

Molecular Markers of Therapy-Resistant Glioblastoma and Potential Strategy to Combat Resistance

1
Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
2
Faculty of Neurosurgery, California Institute of Neuroscience, Thousand Oaks, CA 91360, USA
3
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, An-Najah National University, Nablus 11941, Palestine
4
Department of Neurosurgery, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system. With its overall dismal prognosis (the median survival is 14 months), GBMs demonstrate a resounding resilience against all current treatment modalities. The absence of a major progress in the treatment of GBM maybe a result of our poor understanding of both GBM tumor biology and the mechanisms underlying the acquirement of treatment resistance in recurrent GBMs. A comprehensive understanding of these markers is mandatory for the development of treatments against therapy-resistant GBMs. This review also provides an overview of a novel marker called acid ceramidase and its implication in the development of radioresistant GBMs. Multiple signaling pathways were found altered in radioresistant GBMs. Given these global alterations of multiple signaling pathways found in radioresistant GBMs, an effective treatment for radioresistant GBMs may require a cocktail containing multiple agents targeting multiple cancer-inducing pathways in order to have a chance to make a substantial impact on improving the overall GBM survival. View Full-Text
Keywords: glioblastoma; acid ceramidase; acid ceramidase inhibitors; carmofur; radioresistance; radiation; sphingosine; sphingosine-1-phosphate; S1P glioblastoma; acid ceramidase; acid ceramidase inhibitors; carmofur; radioresistance; radiation; sphingosine; sphingosine-1-phosphate; S1P
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Nguyen, H.S.; Shabani, S.; Awad, A.J.; Kaushal, M.; Doan, N. Molecular Markers of Therapy-Resistant Glioblastoma and Potential Strategy to Combat Resistance. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1765.

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