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Immunological Processes Driving IgE Sensitisation and Disease Development in Males and Females

1
Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia, 100 Roberts Rd, Subiaco, WA 6008, Australia
2
School of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Western Australia, Subiaco, WA 6008, Australia
3
School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1554; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061554
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Mucosal Immunity)
IgE sensitisation has increased significantly over the last decades and is a crucial factor in the development of allergic diseases. IgE antibodies are produced by B cells through the process of antigen presentation by dendritic cells, subsequent differentiation of CD4+ Th2 cells, and class switching in B cells. However, many of the factors regulating these processes remain unclear. These processes affect males and females differently, resulting in a significantly higher prevalence of IgE sensitisation in males compared to females from an early age. Before the onset of puberty, this increased prevalence of IgE sensitisation is also associated with a higher prevalence of clinical symptoms in males; however, after puberty, females experience a surge in the incidence of allergic symptoms. This is particularly apparent in allergic asthma, but also in other allergic diseases such as food and contact allergies. This has been partly attributed to the pro- versus anti-allergic effects of female versus male sex hormones; however, it remains unclear how the expression of sex hormones translates IgE sensitisation into clinical symptoms. In this review, we describe the recent epidemiological findings on IgE sensitisation in male and females and discuss recent mechanistic studies casting further light on how the expression of sex hormones may influence the innate and adaptive immune system at mucosal surfaces and how sex hormones may be involved in translating IgE sensitisation into clinical manifestations. View Full-Text
Keywords: IgE sensitisation; respiratory sensitisation; sex hormones; allergic asthma; innate immunity; adaptive immunity IgE sensitisation; respiratory sensitisation; sex hormones; allergic asthma; innate immunity; adaptive immunity
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Leffler, J.; Stumbles, P.A.; Strickland, D.H. Immunological Processes Driving IgE Sensitisation and Disease Development in Males and Females. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1554.

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