Next Article in Journal
Polyamine Metabolism and Oxidative Protein Folding in the ER as ROS-Producing Systems Neglected in Virology
Next Article in Special Issue
Annexin A1 and Autoimmunity: From Basic Science to Clinical Applications
Previous Article in Journal
The Role of miRNAs in Virus-Mediated Oncogenesis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Therapeutic Potential of Annexin A1 in Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

Annexins in Glaucoma

The Western Eye Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust (ICHNT), London NW1 5QH, UK
The Imperial College Ophthalmic Research Group (ICORG), Imperial College, London NW1 5QH, UK
Glaucoma and Retinal Neurodegeneration Group, Department of Visual Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London EC1V 9EL, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1218;
Received: 10 March 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible visual loss, which has been estimated to affect 3.5% of those over 40 years old and projected to affect a total of 112 million people by 2040. Such a dramatic increase in affected patients demonstrates the need for continual improvement in the way we diagnose and treat this condition. Annexin A5 is a 36 kDa protein that is ubiquitously expressed in humans and is studied as an indicator of apoptosis in several fields. This molecule has a high calcium-dependent affinity for phosphatidylserine, a cell membrane phospholipid externalized to the outer cell membrane in early apoptosis. The DARC (Detection of Apoptosing Retinal Cells) project uses fluorescently-labelled annexin A5 to assess glaucomatous degeneration, the inherent process of which is the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells. Furthermore, this project has conducted investigation of the retinal apoptosis in the neurodegenerative conditions of the eye and brain. In this present study, we summarized the use of annexin A5 as a marker of apoptosis in the eye. We also relayed the progress of the DARC project, developing real-time imaging of retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in vivo from the experimental models of disease and identifying mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and its treatments, which has been applied to the first human clinical trials. DARC has potential as a biomarker in neurodegeneration, especially in the research of novel treatments, and could be a useful tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucoma. View Full-Text
Keywords: glaucoma; annexin; retinal ganglion cell; imaging; apoptosis; neurodegeneration glaucoma; annexin; retinal ganglion cell; imaging; apoptosis; neurodegeneration
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Yap, T.E.; Davis, B.M.; Guo, L.; Normando, E.M.; Cordeiro, M.F. Annexins in Glaucoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1218.

AMA Style

Yap TE, Davis BM, Guo L, Normando EM, Cordeiro MF. Annexins in Glaucoma. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(4):1218.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yap, Timothy E., Benjamin M. Davis, Li Guo, Eduardo M. Normando, and Maria F. Cordeiro 2018. "Annexins in Glaucoma" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19, no. 4: 1218.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop