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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041149

The Role, Involvement and Function(s) of Interleukin-35 and Interleukin-37 in Disease Pathogenesis

1
Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3
International Institute of Management & Technology, Wisma TLT, 51 & 51A, Jalan Sultan Azlan Shah, Titiwangsa Sentral, 51200 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
4
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
5
School of Foundation Studies, Perdana University, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
6
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 March 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Abstract

The recently identified cytokines—interleukin (IL)-35 and interleukin (IL)-37—have been described for their anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating actions in numerous inflammatory diseases, auto-immune disorders, malignancies, infectious diseases and sepsis. Either cytokine has been reported to be reduced and in some cases elevated and consequently contributed towards disease pathogenesis. In view of the recent advances in utilizing cytokine profiles for the development of biological macromolecules, beneficial in the management of certain intractable immune-mediated disorders, these recently characterized cytokines (IL-35 and IL-37) offer potential as reasonable targets for the discovery of novel immune-modulating anti-inflammatory therapies. A detailed comprehension of their sophisticated regulatory mechanisms and patterns of expression may provide unique opportunities for clinical application as highly selective and target specific therapeutic agents. This review seeks to summarize the recent advancements in discerning the dynamics, mechanisms, immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory actions of IL-35 and IL-37 as they relate to disease pathogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytokines; interleukin-35; interleukin-37; pathogenesis cytokines; interleukin-35; interleukin-37; pathogenesis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Bello, R.O.; Chin, V.K.; Abd Rachman Isnadi, M.F.; Abd Majid, R.; Atmadini Abdullah, M.; Lee, T.Y.; Amiruddin Zakaria, Z.; Hussain, M.K.; Basir, R. The Role, Involvement and Function(s) of Interleukin-35 and Interleukin-37 in Disease Pathogenesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1149.

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