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Open AccessArticle

The Influence of High and Low Doses of Bisphenol A (BPA) on the Enteric Nervous System of the Porcine Ileum

Department of Clinical Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego Str. 13, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 917;
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Research of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals)
Bisphenol A, used in the production of plastic, is able to leach from containers into food and cause multidirectional adverse effects in living organisms, including neurodegeneration and metabolic disorders. Knowledge of the impact of BPA on enteric neurons is practically non-existent. The destination of this study was to investigate the influence of BPA at a specific dose (0.05 mg/kg body weight/day) and at a dose ten times higher (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day), given for 28 days, on the porcine ileum. The influence of BPA on enteric neuron immunoreactive to selected neuronal active substances, including substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), galanin (GAL), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT—used here as a marker of cholinergic neurons), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART), was studied by the double immunofluorescence method. Both doses of BPA affected the neurochemical characterization of the enteric neurons. The observed changes depended on the type of enteric plexus but were generally characterized by an increase in the number of cells immunoreactive to the particular substances. More visible fluctuations were observed after treatment with higher doses of BPA. The results confirm that even low doses of BPA may influence the neurochemical characterization of the enteric neurons and are not neutral for living organisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: phenols; digestive tract; ileum; enteric nervous system; pig phenols; digestive tract; ileum; enteric nervous system; pig
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Szymanska, K.; Makowska, K.; Gonkowski, S. The Influence of High and Low Doses of Bisphenol A (BPA) on the Enteric Nervous System of the Porcine Ileum. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 917.

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