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Open AccessArticle

Agnoprotein Is an Essential Egress Factor during BK Polyomavirus Infection

1
Faculty of Biological Sciences and Astbury Centre for Structural and Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
2
Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the manuscript.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 902; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030902
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Polyomaviruses and Papillomaviruses)
BK polyomavirus (BKPyV; hereafter referred to as BK) causes a lifelong chronic infection and is associated with debilitating disease in kidney transplant recipients. Despite its importance, aspects of the virus life cycle remain poorly understood. In addition to the structural proteins, the late region of the BK genome encodes for an auxiliary protein called agnoprotein. Studies on other polyomavirus agnoproteins have suggested that the protein may contribute to virion infectivity. Here, we demonstrate an essential role for agnoprotein in BK virus release. Viruses lacking agnoprotein fail to release from host cells and do not propagate to wild-type levels. Despite this, agnoprotein is not essential for virion infectivity or morphogenesis. Instead, agnoprotein expression correlates with nuclear egress of BK virions. We demonstrate that the agnoprotein binding partner α-soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion (NSF) attachment protein (α-SNAP) is necessary for BK virion release, and siRNA knockdown of α-SNAP prevents nuclear release of wild-type BK virions. These data highlight a novel role for agnoprotein and begin to reveal the mechanism by which polyomaviruses leave an infected cell. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyomavirus; agnoprotein; virus exit polyomavirus; agnoprotein; virus exit
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Panou, M.-M.; Prescott, E.L.; Hurdiss, D.L.; Swinscoe, G.; Hollinshead, M.; Caller, L.G.; Morgan, E.L.; Carlisle, L.; Müller, M.; Antoni, M.; Kealy, D.; Ranson, N.A.; Crump, C.M.; Macdonald, A. Agnoprotein Is an Essential Egress Factor during BK Polyomavirus Infection. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 902.

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