Bias-Exchange Metadynamics Simulation of Membrane Permeation of 20 Amino Acids
AbstractThermodynamics of the permeation of amino acids from water to lipid bilayers is an important first step for understanding the mechanism of cell-permeating peptides and the thermodynamics of membrane protein structure and stability. In this work, we employed bias-exchange metadynamics simulations to simulate the membrane permeation of all 20 amino acids from water to the center of a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membrane (consists of 256 lipids) by using both directional and torsion angles for conformational sampling. The overall accuracy for the free energy profiles obtained is supported by significant correlation coefficients (correlation coefficient at 0.5–0.6) between our results and previous experimental or computational studies. The free energy profiles indicated that (1) polar amino acids have larger free energy barriers than nonpolar amino acids; (2) negatively charged amino acids are the most difficult to enter into the membrane; and (3) conformational transitions for many amino acids during membrane crossing is the key for reduced free energy barriers. These results represent the first set of simulated free energy profiles of membrane crossing for all 20 amino acids. View Full-Text
- Supplementary File 1:
Supplementary (PDF, 1211 KB)
Share & Cite This Article
Cao, Z.; Bian, Y.; Hu, G.; Zhao, L.; Kong, Z.; Yang, Y.; Wang, J.; Zhou, Y. Bias-Exchange Metadynamics Simulation of Membrane Permeation of 20 Amino Acids. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 885.
Cao Z, Bian Y, Hu G, Zhao L, Kong Z, Yang Y, Wang J, Zhou Y. Bias-Exchange Metadynamics Simulation of Membrane Permeation of 20 Amino Acids. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(3):885.Chicago/Turabian Style
Cao, Zanxia; Bian, Yunqiang; Hu, Guodong; Zhao, Liling; Kong, Zhenzhen; Yang, Yuedong; Wang, Jihua; Zhou, Yaoqi. 2018. "Bias-Exchange Metadynamics Simulation of Membrane Permeation of 20 Amino Acids." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 3: 885.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.