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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030800

Astragalus membranaceus Extract Attenuates Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Intestinal Epithelial Cells via NF-κB Activation and Nrf2 Response

1
Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno-Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132-84084 Fisciano-Salerno, Italy
2
Giellepi S.p.A. Health Science Department, Via Benvenuto Cellini 37, 20851 Lissone (Monza Brianza), Italy
3
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Veterinary Research Tower, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6401, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 February 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 10 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents 2018)
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Abstract

Astragalus membranaceus, dried root extract, also known as Astragali radix, is used in traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic remedy. Moreover, it has been reported that Astragalus membranaceus could attenuate intestinal inflammation; however, the underlying mechanism for its anti-inflammatory activity in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated Astragalus membranaceus extract (5–100 µg/mL) in a model of inflammation and oxidative stress for IECs. We showed that Astragalus membranaceus extract reduced the inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide from E. coli (LPS) plus interferon-γ (IFN), decreasing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) release, cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, nitrotyrosine formation, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) release in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6). The antioxidant potential of Astragalus membranaceus extract was also evaluated in a model of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in IEC-6, indicating that this extract reduced ROS release and increased nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) activation and the expression of antioxidant cytoprotective factors in these cells. The results contributed to clarify the mechanisms involved in Astragalus membranaceus extract-reduced inflammation and highlighted the potential use of this extract as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant remedy for intestinal diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: Astragalus membranaceus; intestinal epithelial cells; inflammation; oxidative stress Astragalus membranaceus; intestinal epithelial cells; inflammation; oxidative stress
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Adesso, S.; Russo, R.; Quaroni, A.; Autore, G.; Marzocco, S. Astragalus membranaceus Extract Attenuates Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Intestinal Epithelial Cells via NF-κB Activation and Nrf2 Response. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 800.

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