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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 679;

DNA Methylation Levels of the ELMO Gene Promoter CpG Islands in Human Glioblastomas

Department of Radiation Biology, Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Hematology, Rigshospitalet, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
Biotech Research and Innovation Centre, BRIC, Copenhagen University, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.
Department of Pathology, Center of Diagnostic Investigation, Rigshospitalet, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics (MBG), Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark.
Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Methylation)
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Complete surgical resection of glioblastoma is difficult due to the invasive nature of this primary brain tumor, for which the molecular mechanisms behind remain poorly understood. The three human ELMO genes play key roles in cellular motility, and have been linked to metastasis and poor prognosis in other cancer types. The aim of this study was to investigate methylation levels of the ELMO genes and their correlation to clinical characteristics and outcome in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma. To measure DNA methylation levels we designed pyrosequencing assays targeting the promoter CpG island of each the ELMO genes. These were applied to diagnostic tumor specimens from a well-characterized cohort of 121 patients who received standard treatment consisting of surgery, radiation therapy, plus concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy. The promoter methylation levels of ELMO1 and ELMO2 were generally low, whereas ELMO3 methylation levels were high, in the tumor biopsies. Thirteen, six, and 18 biopsies were defined as aberrantly methylated for ELMO1, ELMO2, and ELMO3, respectively. There were no significant associations between the methylation status of any of the ELMO gene promoter CpG islands and overall survival, progression-free survival, and clinical characteristics of the patients including intracranial tumor location. Therefore, the methylation status of the ELMO gene promoter CpG islands is unlikely to have prognostic value in glioblastoma. View Full-Text
Keywords: glioblastoma; invasion; motility; clinical outcome; DNA methylation; ELMO1; ELMO2; ELMO3 glioblastoma; invasion; motility; clinical outcome; DNA methylation; ELMO1; ELMO2; ELMO3

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Michaelsen, S.R.; Aslan, D.; Urup, T.; Poulsen, H.S.; Grønbæk, K.; Broholm, H.; Kristensen, L.S. DNA Methylation Levels of the ELMO Gene Promoter CpG Islands in Human Glioblastomas. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 679.

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