Next Article in Journal
Size-Dependent Affinity of Glycine and Its Short Oligomers to Pyrite Surface: A Model for Prebiotic Accumulation of Amino Acid Oligomers on a Mineral Surface
Previous Article in Journal
Ethanol Extract of Oldenlandia diffusa Herba Attenuates Scopolamine-Induced Cognitive Impairments in Mice via Activation of BDNF, P-CREB and Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Inadequate Dietary Phosphorus Levels Cause Skeletal Anomalies and Alter Osteocalcin Gene Expression in Zebrafish

Department of Genetics, Institute of Biosciences, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, Sao Paulo 18618-970, Brazil
Department of Crop Science, College of Agricultural Sciences, Sao Paulo State University, Botucatu, Sao Paulo 18610-307, Brazil
Aquaculture Center, Sao Paulo State University (CAUNESP), Jaboticabal, Sao Paulo 14884-900, Brazil
College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, Sao Paulo 18618-970, Brazil
Botucatu Biotechnology Institute, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, Sao Paulo 18618-970, Brazil
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 364;
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
PDF [3223 KB, uploaded 25 January 2018]


Phosphorus (P) is an essential mineral for the development and maintenance of the vertebrate skeletal system. Modulation of P levels is believed to influence metabolism and the physiological responses of gene expression. In this study, we investigated the influence of dietary P on skeletal deformities and osteocalcin gene expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio), and sought to determine appropriate levels in a diet. We analyzed a total of 450 zebrafish within 31 days of hatching. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design that consisted of five replications. After an eight-week experiment, fish were diaphanized to evaluate cranial and spinal bone deformities. Increases in dietary phosphorus were inversely proportional to the occurrence of partial spine fusions, the absence of spine fusions, absence of parallelism between spines, intervertebral spacing, vertebral compression, scoliosis, lordosis, ankylosis, fin caudal insertion, and craniofacial deformities. Additionally, osteocalcin expression was inversely correlated to P levels, suggesting a physiological recovery response for bone mineralization deficiency. Our data showed that dietary P concentration was a critical factor in the occurrence of zebrafish skeletal abnormalities. We concluded that 1.55% P in the diet significantly reduces the appearance of skeletal deformities and favors adequate bone mineralization through the adjustment of osteocalcin expression. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteocalcin; bone mineralization; abnormalities osteocalcin; bone mineralization; abnormalities

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Costa, J.M.; Sartori, M.M.P.; Nascimento, N.F.; Kadri, S.M.; Ribolla, P.E.M.; Pinhal, D.; Pezzato, L.E. Inadequate Dietary Phosphorus Levels Cause Skeletal Anomalies and Alter Osteocalcin Gene Expression in Zebrafish. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 364.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top