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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3953; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123953

Neurological and Inflammatory Manifestations in Sjögren’s Syndrome: The Role of the Kynurenine Metabolic Pathway

1
Ribeirao Preto Medical School, Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP 14049-900 Brazil
2
Espírito Santo Federal University, Vitoria, ES 29075-910, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Disease in Sjögren Syndrome)
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Abstract

For decades, neurological, psychological, and cognitive alterations, as well as other glandular manifestations (EGM), have been described and are being considered to be part of Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). Dry eye and dry mouth are major findings in SS. The lacrimal glands (LG), ocular surface (OS), and salivary glands (SG) are linked to the central nervous system (CNS) at the brainstem and hippocampus. Once compromised, these CNS sites may be responsible for autonomic and functional disturbances that are related to major and EGM in SS. Recent studies have confirmed that the kynurenine metabolic pathway (KP) can be stimulated by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and other cytokines, activating indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in SS. This pathway interferes with serotonergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, mostly in the hippocampus and other structures of the CNS. Therefore, it is plausible that KP induces neurological manifestations and contributes to the discrepancy between symptoms and signs, including manifestations of hyperalgesia and depression in SS patients with weaker signs of sicca, for example. Observations from clinical studies in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), graft-versus-host disease, and lupus, as well as from experimental studies, support this hypothesis. However, the obtained results for SS are controversial, as discussed in this study. Therapeutic strategies have been reexamined and new options designed and tested to regulate the KP. In the future, the confirmation and application of this concept may help to elucidate the mosaic of SS manifestations. View Full-Text
Keywords: IDO; kynurenine; pain; Sjögren’s syndrome; tryptophan IDO; kynurenine; pain; Sjögren’s syndrome; tryptophan
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de Oliveira, F.R.; Fantucci, M.Z.; Adriano, L.; Valim, V.; Cunha, T.M.; Louzada-Junior, P.; Rocha, E.M. Neurological and Inflammatory Manifestations in Sjögren’s Syndrome: The Role of the Kynurenine Metabolic Pathway. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3953.

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