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Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of the Effects of Carbon 60 Nanoparticle Exposure to Adult Zebrafish: A Behavioral and Biochemical Approach to Elucidate the Mechanism of Toxicity

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Department of Chemistry, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan
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Department of Bioscience Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan
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Department of Chemistry, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 11114, Taiwan
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Guangxi Key Laboratory of Efficacy Study on Chinese Materia Medica, Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning 530200, China
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Guangxi Collaborative Innovation Center for Research on Functional Ingredients of Agricultural Residues, Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning 530200, China
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Department of Biological Science & Technology College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 82445, Taiwan
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Center for Biomedical Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan
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Center for Nanotechnology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3853; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123853
Received: 3 November 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
There is a growing concern for the potential toxicity of engineered nanomaterials that have made their way into virtually all novel applications in the electronics, healthcare, cosmetics, technology, and engineering industries, and in particular, biomedical products. However, the potential toxicity of carbon 60 (C60) at the behavioral level has not been properly evaluated. In this study, we used idTracker, a multitracking algorithm to quantitatively assess behavioral toxicity induced by C60 nanoparticles (C60 NPs) in adult zebrafish. We demonstrated that locomotion, novel tank exploration, aggression, shoaling, and color preference activities of the C60 NPs-treated fish was significantly reduced. In addition, the C60 NPs-treated fish also displayed dysregulation of the circadian rhythm by showing lower locomotion activities in both day and night cycles. The biochemical results showed that C60 NPs exposure at low concentration induced oxidative stress and DNA damage, reduced anti-oxidative capacity and ATP (adenosine triphosphate) levels, and induced stress-associated hormones, hypoxia, as well as inflammation marker upregulation in muscle and gill tissues. Together, this work, for the first time, provide direct evidence showing that the chronic exposure of C60 NPs induced multiple behavioral abnormalities in adult zebrafish. Our findings suggest that the ecotoxicity of C60 NPs towards aquatic vertebrates should be carefully evaluated. View Full-Text
Keywords: zebrafish; behavior; fullerene; hypoactivity; anxiety; ecotoxicity zebrafish; behavior; fullerene; hypoactivity; anxiety; ecotoxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sarasamma, S.; Audira, G.; Juniardi, S.; Sampurna, B.P.; Lai, Y.-H.; Hao, E.; Chen, J.-R.; Hsiao, C.-D. Evaluation of the Effects of Carbon 60 Nanoparticle Exposure to Adult Zebrafish: A Behavioral and Biochemical Approach to Elucidate the Mechanism of Toxicity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3853.

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