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Temporal Frame of Immune Cell Infiltration during Heart Failure Establishment: Lessons from Animal Models

Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Cátedra de Cardiología y Medicina Vascular, Monterrey, Nuevo León 64849, Mexico
Tecnologico de Monterrey, Hospital Zambrano Hellion, TecSalud, Centro de Investigación Biomédica, San Pedro Garza García, Nuevo León 66278, Mexico
Methodist DeBakey Heart & Vascular Center, The Methodist Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3719;
Received: 6 October 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
PDF [1667 KB, uploaded 23 November 2018]


Heart failure (HF) is a cardiovascular syndrome characterized by maladaptive changes with an underlying inflammatory mediated pathogenesis. Nevertheless, current therapy is aimed at the heart workload and neurohormonal axis; thus, prognosis remains poor. To continue improving treatment, we rely on murine models for a better understanding of HF pathophysiology. Among them, pressure overload HF (PO-HF) animal models are a common strategy. Development of PO-HF is characterized by monocyte infiltration, which orchestrates a cascade of events leading to sustained inflammation and maladaptive changes. Here, we divide the PO-HF model progression into four phases and describe the inflammatory, structural, and gene expression profiles. This division is relevant due to its similarities with clinical hypertensive heart disease progression to HF. Evidence shows improvement in hemodynamic and other local parameters by altering the inflammatory response in a specific immune response at a specific point of time. Thus, it is relevant to focus on the time-dependent immune response interaction in order to provide more effective therapy. This review summarizes the pathogenesis of PO-HF murine models, highlighting the inflammatory events in a time frame view. By this approach, we expect to provide researchers with a better understanding of the intertwining time-dependent events that occur in PO-HF. View Full-Text
Keywords: heart failure; inflammation; animal models; pressure overload heart failure; inflammation; animal models; pressure overload

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Brenes-Castro, D.; Castillo, E.C.; Vázquez-Garza, E.; Torre-Amione, G.; García-Rivas, G. Temporal Frame of Immune Cell Infiltration during Heart Failure Establishment: Lessons from Animal Models. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3719.

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