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Identification of Heterotrimeric G Protein γ3 Subunit in Rice Plasma Membrane
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3596;

Characterization of Heterotrimeric G Protein γ4 Subunit in Rice

Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Fukui Prefectural University, 4-1-1 Kenjojima, Matsuoka, Eiheiji-Town, Fukui 910-1195, Japan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 2.0)
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Heterotrimeric G proteins are the molecule switch that transmits information from external signals to intracellular target proteins in mammals and yeast cells. In higher plants, heterotrimeric G proteins regulate plant architecture. Rice harbors one canonical α subunit gene (RGA1), four extra-large GTP-binding protein genes (XLGs), one canonical β-subunit gene (RGB1), and five γ-subunit genes (tentatively designated RGG1, RGG2, RGG3/GS3/Mi/OsGGC1, RGG4/DEP1/DN1/qPE9-1/OsGGC3, and RGG5/OsGGC2) as components of the heterotrimeric G protein complex. Among the five γ-subunit genes, RGG1 encodes the canonical γ-subunit, RGG2 encodes a plant-specific type of γ-subunit with additional amino acid residues at the N-terminus, and the remaining three γ-subunit genes encode atypical γ-subunits with cysteine-rich C-termini. We characterized the RGG4/DEP1/DN1/qPE9-1/OsGGC3 gene product Gγ4 in the wild type (WT) and truncated protein Gγ4∆Cys in the RGG4/DEP1/DN1/qPE9-1/OsGGC3 mutant, Dn1-1, as littele information regarding the native Gγ4 and Gγ4∆Cys proteins is currently available. Based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, immunoprecipitated Gγ4 candidates were confirmed as actual Gγ4. Similar to α-(Gα) and β-subunits (Gβ), Gγ4 was enriched in the plasma membrane fraction and accumulated in the developing leaf sheath. As RGG4/DEP1/DN1/qPE9-1/OsGGC3 mutants exhibited dwarfism, tissues that accumulated Gγ4 corresponded to the abnormal tissues observed in RGG4/DEP1/DN1/qPE9-1/OsGGC3 mutants. View Full-Text
Keywords: Dn1-1; γ-subunit; heterotrimeric G protein; mass spectrometry analysis; RGG4; rice; western blotting Dn1-1; γ-subunit; heterotrimeric G protein; mass spectrometry analysis; RGG4; rice; western blotting

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Matsuta, S.; Nishiyama, A.; Chaya, G.; Itoh, T.; Miura, K.; Iwasaki, Y. Characterization of Heterotrimeric G Protein γ4 Subunit in Rice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3596.

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