Risk Factors and Pathogenesis of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder: The Role of Host Genetics
AbstractNeurocognitive impairments associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remain a considerable health issue for almost half the people living with HIV, despite progress in HIV treatment through combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The pathogenesis and risk factors of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) are still incompletely understood. This is partly due to the complexity of HAND diagnostics, as phenotypes present with high variability and change over time. Our current understanding is that HIV enters the central nervous system (CNS) during infection, persisting and replicating in resident immune and supporting cells, with the subsequent host immune response and inflammation likely adding to the development of HAND. Differences in host (human) genetics determine, in part, the effectiveness of the immune response and other factors that increase the vulnerability to HAND. This review describes findings from studies investigating the role of human host genetics in the pathogenesis of HAND, including potential risk factors for developing HAND. The similarities and differences between HAND and Alzheimer’s disease are also discussed. While some specific variations in host genes regulating immune responses and neurotransmission have been associated with protection or risk of HAND development, the effects are generally small and findings poorly replicated. Nevertheless, a few specific gene variants appear to affect the risk for developing HAND and aid our understanding of HAND pathogenesis. View Full-Text
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Olivier, I.S.; Cacabelos, R.; Naidoo, V. Risk Factors and Pathogenesis of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder: The Role of Host Genetics. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3594.
Olivier IS, Cacabelos R, Naidoo V. Risk Factors and Pathogenesis of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder: The Role of Host Genetics. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(11):3594.Chicago/Turabian Style
Olivier, Ian S.; Cacabelos, Ramón; Naidoo, Vinogran. 2018. "Risk Factors and Pathogenesis of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder: The Role of Host Genetics." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 11: 3594.
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