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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 2953; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102953

Adaptive Evolution of the Eda Gene and Scales Loss in Schizothoracine Fishes in Response to Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau

1
Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810001, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Plateau Ecology and Agriculture, Qinghai University, Xining 810016, China
3
Qinghai Province Key Laboratory of Animal Ecological Genomics, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810001, China
4
Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, 10324 Berlin, Germany
5
Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fish Reproduction and Development (Ministry of Education), Southwest University School of Life Sciences, Chongqing 400715, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Abstract

Schizothoracine is the predominant wild fish subfamily of the Tibetan plateau (TP). Their scales, pharyngeal teeth and barbels have gradually regressed with increasing altitude. Schizothoracine have been divided into three groups: primitive, specialized and highly specialized. Ectodysplasin-A (Eda) has been considered as a major gene that contributes to the development of skin appendages. The present study cloned the Eda genes of 51 Schizothoracine fish species which represent the three groups and five Barbinae species. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that Eda may have acted as the genetic trigger for scale loss in the Schizothoracine. Furthermore, 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two deletions (18 bp and 6 bp in size), were also detected in the Eda coding sequence of the highly specialized group compared to the primitive group. The same SNPs and two indels result in four non-synonymous and two G-X-Y and 1 XY motif indels, which possibly contribute to significant structure changes in the Eda gene. The domain including (G-X-Y)n motif in the Eda gene is relatively conserved amongst teleosts. Based on the above results, we hypothesize that the evolution of Eda gene might be associated with the scale loss in Schizothoracine fishes in response to the phased uplift of the TP. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tibetan plateau; Schizothoracine; scale loss; Eda gene; adaptive evolution Tibetan plateau; Schizothoracine; scale loss; Eda gene; adaptive evolution
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, C.; Tong, C.; Ludwig, A.; Tang, Y.; Liu, S.; Zhang, R.; Feng, C.; Li, G.; Peng, Z.; Zhao, K. Adaptive Evolution of the Eda Gene and Scales Loss in Schizothoracine Fishes in Response to Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2953.

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